The basic idea of equal employment opportunity (EEO) is that every person in the workplace deserves to be treated fairly. This is in regard to any employment decision, including hiring, training, promotion opportunities, wages, and more.
There are a set of protected characteristics that employers must not take into account when making employment decisions. The characteristics include, but are not limited to, gender, race, ethnicity, age, and sexual orientation. The concept of EEO is there to ensure that all people who have the right skills for a position should have equal chances of getting hired, promote, or gaining other opportunities.